This report makes a statistical analysis of the results obtained in our clinical service laboratory between January 2014 and October 2015. Determinations of total aflatoxins (AFLA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN), vomitoxin (DON), T2-toxin (T2) and fumonisins (FUM) were carried out in samples of feedstuffs for swine, poultry and dairy cows provided by our Chinese customers.
GENERAL VIEW OF MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION
Taking a look to the general levels of contamination of the samples, only 2% of the samples were negative to mycotoxins; 9% of the samples were contaminated with only one mycotoxin and 89% of the samples were positive to two or more mycotoxins.
Studying the samples that were positive to one or more mycotoxins, around half (48%) did not exceed the recommended safety levels of contamination, while the other half (52%) showed one or more mycotoxins above the advised safety levels.
Fumonisin was the most frequently found mycotoxin: 97% of the samples were positive while 57% showed a contamination above the recommended safety limits for each species.
The second most common mycotoxin was zearalenone (91% of contaminated samples), but only 5% of the feedstuffs were above the advised limits. Vomitoxin was the third most common mycotoxin: 87% samples were positive and 42% above the recommended limits for each species.
Regarding aflatoxins, they were found in 64% of the samples and 27% of the feedstuffs were above the advised levels. T2-toxin is the mycotoxin that occurs least frequently, with only 28% positive samples and 7% above the safety limits.
RESULTS BY SPECIE
Statistics on pig feedstuffs
Zearalenone is the most frequently found mycotoxin (91% of positive samples). As it is well-known, this toxin related to alterations of the reproductive function. Although only 5% of the samples were more contaminated than the safety limits, zearalenone has synergistic effects with vomitoxin, another frequently found mycotoxin, so the real toxicity on the animals may have been more important than the results of our analysis indicated.
The contamination by fumonisins is the second most important (83% of positive samples) and half of the samples exceeded safety limits. In pigs, the negative effects of fumonisins are linked to low immunity and respiratory diseases.
The occurrence of vomitoxin is also high (69% of positive samples), with 56% of the samples above safety limits. The toxic effects of vomitoxin are related to feed refusal, vomiting, and productivity losses caused by less feed intake.
Statistics on broiler feedstuffs
The most common mycotoxin in broiler feedstuffs is vomitoxin (100% of positive samples), which is related to impared feed intake and reduced growth. Although no sample was exceeding safety limits, vomitoxin has additive effects with T2-toxin and synergistic effects with fumonisins, and both T2-toxin and fumonisin contamination was quite frequent.
The contamination by aflatoxins is the second most important (76.47% of positive samples) but no sample exceeded safety limits. We attribute this low aflatoxins contamination to a deeper knowledge of risks by aflatoxins in the country.
The occurrence of T2-toxin the third most frequently found (67% of positive samples). This mycotoxin is linked to oral and digestive ulcers and lesions in liver. Though there was no sample exceeding safety limits, the presence of T-2 toxin indicates the existence in the feedstuffs of non-analyzed mycotoxins such as HT2-toxin, that are much more toxic than T2-toxin itself. So the actual toxic effects of T2-toxin may be worse than the laboratory results may indicate.
Statistics on feedstuffs for layers and breeders
The most common contamination in feedstuffs for layers and breeders is fumonisins (100% samples), which is related to worse feed conversion and impaired egg quality. 62% of the samples exceed recommended safety limits. Fumonisins have synergistic effects with vomitoxin.
The contamination by vomitoxin is the second most important (95.5% of positive samples) , which is related to a decrease in laying rate and egg weight. 55% of the samples show levels above those recommended.
T2-toxin is the least frequently found mycotoxin, but all the positive samples show levels above recommendations. T2-toxin causes a decrease in laying rate and hatchability. T2-toxin and vomitoxin have additive effects.
Statistics on feedstuffs for dairy cows
Ruminants are not much affected by the harmful effects of mycotoxins but the biotransformation of aflatoxin B1to aflatoxin M1 and its excretion through milk leads to toxicity in humans. 100% of feedstuffs for dairy cows were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and 89% exceeded safety limits.
Occurrence of highly contaminated samples is elevated, so market players should pay a closer attention to mycotoxins in dairy feedstuffs and to milk quality.
If we compare our results to other similar reports and scientific articles about mycotoxin levels in Chinese feedstuffs, such as the one of Chin LJ and Tan LM, our statistics show higher levels of general contamination. We concur with the other reports that the most common mycotoxins found in China are fumonisins, vomitoxin and zearalenone.
We found that contamination by fumonisins is the most frequent in China , therefore the risk of having problems of immune depression in Chinese herds is quite significant.
Aflatoxins, vomitoxin and zearalenone are also very frequently found mycotoxins. Aflatoxin will affect all species, leading to liver lesions, decrease in feed intake and egg defects. On the other hand, poultry and pig are the most sensitive to vomitoxin.In poultry, vomitoxin will cause feed refusal, egg defects and mouth ulcer; in pigs it reduce feed intake by 10 to 30%, induce vomiting, impair weight gain by 5 to 20% and increase the days required to reach market weigth. Finally, zearalenone will cause serious reproductive problems to gilts, sows and boars.
The results of this two-year mycotoxin survey reiterate the importance of performing a mycotoxin determination of the feedstuffs prior to feeding the animals. We offer a professional analysis service that determinates the mycotoxin levels your feeds, raw materials or milk and helps to make a risk assessment.
Finally, we want to underscore that, although there are a lot of mycotoxin binder in the market, PlusBind© and PlusBind Bio© show better adsorption rate for all mycotoxin than competitors, thanks to their strategic blends of highly active mycotoxin sequestering silicates.
If you want try one of the best mycotoxin binders in the market, do not hesitate to get in touch with us.
Finally, we want to underscore that, although there are a lot of mycotoxin binder in the market, PlusBind© and PlusBind Bio© show better adsorption rate for all mycotoxin than competitors, thanks to their composition based on strategic blends of highly active mycotoxin sequestering silicates. If you want try one of the best mycotoxin binders in the market, do not hesitate to get in touch with us.
Ms. SunYing, Quality Assessment
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